Climate change is causing soil salinization, resulting in crop losses throughout the world. The ability of plants to tolerate salt stress is determined by multiple biochemical and molecular pathways. In a recent study, physiological, biochemical, and cellular modulations in plants in response to salt stress are discussed.
Knowledge of these modulations can assist in assessing salt tolerance potential and the mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance in plants. Salinity-induced cellular damage is highly correlated with generation of reactive oxygen species, ionic imbalance, osmotic damage, and reduced relative water content.
Accelerated antioxidant activities and osmotic adjustment by the formation of organic and inorganic osmolytes are significant and effective salinity tolerance mechanisms for crop plants. In addition, polyamines improve salt tolerance by regulating various physiological mechanisms, including rhizogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, maintenance of cell pH, and ionic homeostasis.
This research project focused on three strategies to augment salinity tolerance capacity in agricultural crops: salinity-induced alterations in signaling pathways; signaling of phytohormones, ion channels, and biosensors; and expression of ion transporter genes in crop plants (especially in comparison to halophytes).