The challenges facing soil-based agriculture led to the invention of soilless agriculture. Soilless cultivation has become possible through the use of hi-tech.
As of now, soil is the most common growing media used for growing crops throughout the world as it provides adequate support, nutrition, air and water required for optimum growth of the plants. However, soils are posing some serious limitations mainly in safe food production due to presence of soil-borne diseases, nematodes, drainage and other factors. The challenges facing soil-based agriculture have led to the invention of soilless agriculture. The plant, in fact, does not need soil to grow but for its nutrients. Based on this principle, soilless cultivation has become possible through the use of hi-tech. Soilless farming refers to growing wide range of crops, particularly horticultural crops, in different growing media or substrates other than soil (substrate culture) or in aerated nutrient solution (water culture). In other words, it includes all systems of plant growth either on porous substrates or on pure nutrient solution (NS) instead of the natural soil. Thanks to advancements in soilless agriculture technology.